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Found 28 results

  1. Measles outbreaks continue to occur in a number of EU/EEA countries, and there is a risk of spread and sustained transmission in areas with susceptible populations. Since the beginning of 2016, 48 deaths due to measles were reported in the EU. New data published today by ECDC in the Communicable Disease Threat Report (CDTR) show that the highest number of measles cases in 2017 were reported in Romania (7 977), Italy (4 854) and Germany (904). Greece is currently experiencing a measles outbreak, with 690 cases including two deaths, reported since May 2017; most cases were unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated. The monthly measles and rubella surveillance monitoring report is also published today and provides more in-depth analysis of the situation. The spread of measles across Europe is due to suboptimal vaccination coverage in many EU/EEA countries: of all measles cases reported during the one-year period 1 November 2016‒31 October 2017 with known vaccination status, 87% were not vaccinated. Measles increasingly affects all age groups across Europe and in 2017, 45% of measles cases with known age were aged 15 years or older. Romania, Italy, Germany and Greece were the countries most affected by measles during 2016 and 2017 and each shows different trends: Romania saw a sharp increase in cases from October 2016, and the trend has continued throughout 2017; in Italy, the increasing trend started in January 2017, while in Germany it began in February 2017; Greece has seen a measles outbreak starting in the second half of 2017, with 167 cases reported in October. This data is based on analysis of the cases notified to ECDC and included in the monthly and biannual monitoring reports. The latest available figures on vaccination coverage collected by WHO (2016) show that the vaccination coverage for the first dose of measles was below 95% in 18 of 30 EU/EEA countries; for the second dose of measles, it was below 95% in 20 of 27 EU/EEA countries reporting second dose coverage data. In order to achieve the measles elimination goal, the vaccination coverage rates for children targeted by routine vaccination programmes should increase in a number of countries, as the vaccination coverage of the second dose must be at least 95% to interrupt measles circulation and achieve herd immunity. This is particularly important to protect children below one year of age, who are particularly vulnerable to complications of measles but are too young to have received the first dose of vaccine. Read more ECDC collects measles data on a monthly basis via The European Surveillance System (TESSy). In addition, ECDC monitors measles and rubella epidemiology and outbreaks via epidemic intelligence. For a complete overview of data regarding measles outbreaks in the EU/EEA in 2016 and 2017, the following outputs are available and regularly updated: Communicable Disease Threat Report “Measles and Rubella, Monitoring European and worldwide outbreaks” (Epidemic intelligence data) Monthly measles and rubella monitoring report (a concise report with TESSy data from 1 November 2016 – 31 October 2017) Bi-annual measles and rubella monitoring report (an extensive report, TESSy and epidemic intelligence data presented, with data from 1 January 2016 – 30 June 2017) ECDC Atlas of Infectious Diseases (TESSy data) Monthly-Measles-Rubella-monitoring-report-December-2017_0.pdf
  2. 15 years certified polio free in Europe

    As we wave goodbye and good riddance to polio, it’s important to remember that just three things stand between us and a return of the virus that used to devastate so many young lives. The first is high vaccination coverage and although a great many countries have hit the magic 95% coverage, and achieved herd immunity, this target has eluded many. Secondly, surveillance efforts must be sustained so that any cases or containment breaches are detected immediately. Thirdly all samples of the virus must be logged and properly contained. In this article Professor David Salisbury, Chair of the Global Certification Commission and European Regional Certification Commission for Poliomyelitis Eradication, gives his view of the current situation. http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/poliomyelitis/news/news/2017/10/15th-anniversary-of-polio-free-certification-in-the-european-region-but-the-hard-work-to-prevent-future-cases-is-not-over
  3. I work in Roskilde in a substance abuse clinic. We see all kinds of patients, aged 18 and over, who have problems with drugs or alcohol. My job is to give them medicine and to arrange for blood tests and to vaccinate them for hepatitis. Immunizing for hepatitis is a big part of my job. This client group uses needles, which they share, meaning they end up infecting each other with all kinds of diseases. Even though we give them free needles, they still share because when people are taking drugs they don’t think about risk in the same way. This is an extremely vulnerable group of people. A lot of them are homeless, they’re the people you see on the streets, many of them are prostitutes and criminals. We use different pedagogical approaches depending on the person. For hepatitis I try to ‘sell’ the good idea of being vaccinated - everyone understands that theory. Young people feel they will be freer in their ‘party life’ if they can’t get hepatitis, so then I have another job to tell them about other diseases. I have to talk to the person in front of me in such a way that they will understand it. Sometimes I draw a picture to show them how the infection spreads. I tell the patient: “I am giving you a gift so you don’t get sick from the life you are living.” Some of my patients don’t get the idea of being immunized but it’s not a trust problem. It can be really hard work making them understand the importance of it and even harder work to get them to turn up for the appointment. When we send patients for blood tests we can order the tests electronically rather than giving people pieces of paper. Where possible we actually walk with them to the place where they get the blood test. The most frustrating thing is when patients don’t show up. It’s unfortunately rare to get to finish all three doses of the vaccine. In an ideal world we would vaccinate at the same time as giving methadone so the patients are at the clinic anyway, using every contact with a patient to vaccinate is a very good strategy and I hope we may soon be able to do that here. A trickier aspect of my ideal world would be a wonder vaccine for hepatitis that would only require one dose. Could you do that for me? I am very patient…..
  4. The Confederation of Meningitis Organisations (CoMO) are pleased to share the new: Vaccines Question & Answer Resource! This resource answers many of the more challenging questions surrounding vaccines including the topics of: Vaccine Manufacture and Availability Vaccine Protection Vaccine Safety View online>> Download PDF>> Please share this resource as far and wide as you consider appropriate within your professional and personal networks alike. Use the link: http://bit.ly/VaxQandA and the hashtag: #VaccinesWork CoMO's Vaccines Q&A Resource.pdf
  5. until
    Cognizance Scientific warmly welcomes all participants across the globe to attend Global Congress on Vaccine and Vaccination Techniques is going to be held at Dubai, during April 16-18,2018. Vaccine congress is mainly focused on “Vaccines research and Advance approach towards vaccination techniques for global cause” and its agenda is to produce high quality current research and best practices highlighted keynote presentations, oral and posters abstracts. Vaccine congress gathers diverse disciplines involved in the research and development of vaccines and associated technologies for disease control through immunization. This global platform brings experts, Scientists, research scholars, academic and industry professionals to explore their work and enhance their skills for the improvement of our Scientific Community. Cognizance Scientific also provides an international exposure for young researchers and scholars through their research work by meeting expertise within the field of vaccines and enhancing their knowledge. The Conference comprises with symposium, workshops, Exhibitions, Young research forum, Poster sessions, renowned speakers and eminent keynote presentations. The global vaccines market is expected to grasp USD 48.03 Billion by 2021 from USD 32.24 Billion in 2017 at a CAGR of 8.3% from 2017 to 2021. The major factor driving the growth of this market are high prevalence of diseases, rising government and nongovernment funding for vaccine development, increasing investments by companies, and increasing focus on immunization programs Vaccine 2018 Brochure.pdf
  6. Vaccination and trust library (WHO)

    WHO: Vaccination and trust (2017) This document presents the scientific evidence behind WHO’s recommendations on building and restoring confidence in vaccines and vaccination, both in ongoing work and during crises. The evidence draws on a vast reserve of laboratory research and fieldwork within psychology and communication. It examines how people make decisions about vaccination; why some people are hesitant about vaccination; and the factors that drive a crisis, covering how building trust, listening to and understanding people, building relations, communicating risk and shaping messages to the audiences may mitigate crises. This background document is part of the Vaccination and trust library, which includes a series of support documents with practical guidance for specific situations.
  7. Summary The Norwegian Immunisation Information System “SYSVAK” has been improved such that it can provide a list identifying children who have not been vaccinated with the second dose of Measles, Mumps and Rubella vaccination (MMR2) before the age of 16. Having an established rule for automated reminders in SYSVAK allowed for the Norwegian authorities to quickly respond and update the rule to expose MMR2 coverage levels in 16 year olds. Background Before 2015, Norwegian national coverage data for Measles, Mumps and Rubella (MMR) vaccination reported in SYSVAK did not routinely include the second dose (MMR2). Instead, SYSVAK considered an individual to be fully vaccinated if they had received one dose of MMR in the past nine years. Whereas, the Norwegian Childhood Immunisation Program recommends two doses of MMR vaccine, with MMR1 administered at 15 months and MMR2 at 11-12 years. What happened? Significant inconsistencies in data reported to the WHO’s European Regional Verification Commission and figures based on SYSVAK were identified, and Norway was considered to be at risk of measles and rubella transmission becoming re-established. The official vaccine coverage figures based on SYSVAK data, which indicated that individuals were fully vaccinated if they had received one MMR dose in the past 9 years, showed that only one of 19 counties in Norway had MMR coverage below 90% in 16 year olds. Whereas, data being reported by Norway to the European Regional Verification Commission, which included MMR 1 and MMR 2 coverage data, showed that six out of 19 counties had MMR2 coverage levels below 90% in 16 year olds. Action taken The SYSVAK method to assess coverage of MMR vaccination for 16 year olds was updated to secure the inclusion of MMR2 coverage. This included a mechanism for verifying that two doses of MMR vaccine have been given before age 16, and not just one dose in the last 9 years. To support this change in SYSVAK, the advice contained in the official recommendation from the Norwegian Childhood Immunisation Programme was strengthened to emphasise the need for two doses of MMR vaccine to secure lifetime immunisation. Communications around this advice were implemented to remind both vaccinators and the public about the need for two MMR doses. Results Based on SYSVAK data, real time surveillance of MMR vaccinations has significantly improved as children who are missing MMR2 by age 14 will appear on a list of unvaccinated 15 year olds before they leave secondary school. As a result, MMR2 coverage has increased with only 3 out of 19 counties continuing to have MMR2 coverage levels below 90% in 16 year olds according to the latest data from 2016.
  8. The importance of vaccination throughout life is a key message at the heart of this year’s World Immunisation Week and the #VaccinesWork campaign. As an organisation whose main focus is meningitis and septicaemia, we at the Confederation of Meningitis Organisations (CoMO), know only too well the consequences of a common misconception that vaccinations are just for babies. We know only too well the consequences of a common misconception that vaccinations are just for babies We are first to agree that infant vaccination is one of the most important and highly successful areas of protection but other ages are also at risk. Teenagers are an essential piece of the puzzle when it comes to raising awareness of the importance of vaccines. This is not only because they are the adults, and parents, of tomorrow but also because it is at this point that many who have been in the education system will move into the world of work, meaning they are harder to reach to talk about recommended vaccines. We conducted a survey through ComRes of 3,026 14-18 year olds across the UK, France, Germany, Poland, Italy and Sweden to gain a better understanding of their levels of awareness around vaccines and how best to communicate these essential messages to them. We surveyed 3,026 14-18 year olds across the UK, France, Germany, Poland, Italy and Sweden We were pleased to find that there was a very positive attitude to receiving information about vaccines, with only 9% saying that they did not want to receive information. There was also a positive response to the need for vaccines throughout life. Young people in France and Germany were the most well-informed on this topic, with around three quarters indicating that vaccines are needed at all stages of life (74% and 73% respectively). In the other countries surveyed awareness was lower, in Poland and the UK in particular, there was a greater belief that vaccines are needed as a baby or toddler (41% in both the UK and Poland) or at school or university (33% in the UK, 23% in Poland) - not at other stages of life. This may indicate a need for greater education in these areas and it would be interesting to compare these findings with the figures for vaccine uptake over the course of life to examine whether a greater awareness of need for vaccines results in a greater level of uptake. Interestingly, this awareness does not seem to correlate with the general attitude towards the safety of vaccines. One in five (18%) of those surveyed say they are afraid of having a vaccination because they don’t trust them, and a worrying 32% responded that they think vaccines can be dangerous. In France especially this concern over the safety of vaccines was most prevalent, with 41% of adolescents agreeing that they can be dangerous and 20% saying that they are afraid of vaccines because they don’t trust them. A study published in EBioMedicine last year found that the same proportion of the general population in France disagreed with the statement that vaccines are safe, so it may be that adolescent opinion is representative of the general population on the subject of vaccination. A worrying 32% responded that they think vaccines can be dangerous In France 61% of adolescents report seeing or hearing about vaccines through their doctors. A study published in Eurosurveillance in November of last year found that 14% of French GPs are moderately vaccine-hesitant. It is possible that this hesitancy reported in adolescents stems from the attitudes of their GPs towards vaccination, a concerning thought. In the other countries surveyed, adolescents reported learning about vaccination predominantly through their parents or guardians, with doctors coming in second place and school or teachers following behind. A finding of note is that there were marked differences between the individual countries and where they report hearing about vaccines and importantly, where they would like to hear about vaccines in future, indicating that an approach to awareness raising on the safety of vaccines and the importance of vaccines across the life course must be tailored to the needs of adolescents on a more country-specific basis. We were also surprised to learn that young people express less of an interest in learning about vaccination via digital media. This source was considered less trustworthy and traditional means were clearly favoured. There were marked differences between the individual countries and where they report hearing about vaccines Overall the results are promising. Attitudes towards vaccination and its necessity throughout life are generally good and methods of communication have clearly been identified. There is certainly more work to be done, particularly with regard to addressing vaccine hesitancy as an important part of education about the role vaccines have to play throughout life. The information from this survey will provide us with an important steer towards the best methods to use to communicate with young people and to move further towards a universal understanding of the need for vaccines at all stages of life.
  9. This winter, influenza activity in the European Region started to increase earlier than in recent years. Influenza A(H3N2) virus represented about 98% of influenza A viruses detected and typed so far. The distribution of viruses may change over the course of a winter, and so it is currently unclear whether or not the predominant virus will remain the same for the duration of the winter. So far this influenza season in the European Region, circulating A(H3N2) viruses are antigenically similar to the vaccine strain. Early monitoring of vaccine effectiveness in Scandinavia suggests that levels of effectiveness are similar to previous years. While vaccination against influenza reduces the risk of infection and hospitalization, it is not 100% effective. Therefore health providers should preferentially suspect and treat severe influenza in the elderly and other risk groups, including considering the use of influenza-specific antiviral medicines even in patients who have been vaccinated. The majority of recently circulating influenza viruses tested were found to be susceptible to the neuraminidase inhibitor class of antiviral medications. Pooled analysis of data from 19 European Union/European Economic Area countries or regions reporting to the European Monitoring of Excess Mortality for Public Health project indicated that excess all-cause mortality seems to have been increasing among the elderly in recent weeks, notably in France and Portugal. This may be due to influenza and, for some countries, the extremely cold weather. However, the observed increase in excess mortality is prone to uncertainty due to delayed adjustment and should be interpreted with caution. For more information on the influenza situation in Europe and the World please visit: Flu News Europe https://flunewseurope.org/ WHO global influenza updates http://www.who.int/influenza/surveillance_monitoring/updates/en
  10. Unlike most other vaccinations, the one for influenza needs to be take every year in order for it to be effective. This infographic answers the question Why? It talks about antigens and receptors so isn't pitching itself to the 5-sec-glance audience but to those with the curiosity (and need) to understand why this is the case. Would you be interested in translating or adapting it for your own use?We have adaptable files (Adobe Illustrator) available for exactly that purpose.Contact Health.Communication@ecdc.europa.eu to get those files or to find out more.

    © European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control, 2016

  11. http://www.vaccinestoday.eu/vaccines/pharmacists-to-deliver-more-vaccines-in-ireland/
  12. Reaching and maintaining sufficiently high immunization coverage is not possible without the active support of health professionals. Unfortunately, many involved in vaccination are not sufficiently informed and may have doubts themselves about the safety or efficacy of the vaccines they are administering. To close this information gap, WHO and the European Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (ESPID) developed the Wiser Immunisers online course, which is now offered through the ESPID website. The course is set to begin for the third time on 17 October, and registration is open until 10 October. Course participants earn 12 EU CME credits, and their feedback following the first two runs of the course has been very positive. The ESPID online course on vaccination provides internet-based training on: vaccine-preventable diseases including clinical presentation, diagnosis, management, treatment, prognosis and public health implications vaccines and their side effects and contraindications communicating with patients and caregivers about vaccination, including addressing common misconceptions and tackling vaccine hesitancy. More information about the course and how to register is available on the ESPID website: http://www.espid.org/content.aspx?Group=education&Page=wiser immuniser online course Please pass this information on to individuals or groups who could benefit from learning or refreshing their knowledge about this important topic.
  13. ESWI Science Policy Flu Summit

    The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) is holding this year’s Science Policy Flu Summit on 28 September in Brussels, Belgium. The agenda includes lectures on newly emerging influenza viruses, current and future antivirals, and the pros and cons of vaccinating children, pregnant women, people with asthma and diabetes patients. Dr. Marco Goeijenbier will present the outcome of a brand new review study on influenza vaccination for travellers, while Dr. Florian Krammer will review the pathways to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines. The Science Policy Flu Summit provides a platform for debate and interaction among leaders from health professionals´ organizations, patient organizations, academia, industry and civil society in order to work together to reduce the burden of both epidemic and pandemic influenza in Europe. Registration is free, but the number of seats is limited. More information about the concept of the Summit and a preliminary programme is available at http://www.flusummit.org. http://Registration is possible at http://eswi.org/flusummit/register/
  14. Fifth ESWI Science Policy Flu Summit

    The European Scientific Working group on Influenza (ESWI) is holding this year’s Science Policy Flu Summit on 28 September in Brussels, Belgium. The agenda includes lectures on newly emerging influenza viruses, current and future antivirals, and the pros and cons of vaccinating children, pregnant women, people with asthma and diabetes patients. Dr. Marco Goeijenbier will present the outcome of a brand new review study on influenza vaccination for travellers, while Dr. Florian Krammer will review the pathways to improve the effectiveness of influenza vaccines. The Science Policy Flu Summit provides a platform for debate and interaction among leaders from health professionals´ organizations, patient organizations, academia, industry and civil society in order to work together to reduce the burden of both epidemic and pandemic influenza in Europe. Registration is free, but the number of seats is limited. More information about the concept of the Summit and a preliminary programme is available at http://www.flusummit.org. Registration is possible at http://eswi.org/flusummit/register/.
  15. Free Resource @YouTube Anti-Vax = Anti-Facts ( Playlist ) https://www.youtube.com/playlist?list=PLefPh1XlGcqNQmRfAAziO7kyfqP2TO4xT
  16. Even for 1 Week ! http://www.microbeworld.org/index.php Episodes 2&3&4 PUBLISHED
  17. 28 July is World Hepatitis Day, and WHO calls on policy-makers, health workers and the public to “Know hepatitis. Act now”. Today, only 1 in 20 people with viral hepatitis know they have it. And just 1 in 100 with the disease is being treated. A vaccine against hepatitis B, which is 95% effective, has been available since 1982, yet Hep B is still a potentially life threatening liver disease that poses a threat to global health. Over 13 million people in the European Region are estimated to be living with hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, and over 15 million with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. These two viruses account for the greatest burden of viral hepatitis in the Region. More than 400 people across the WHO European Region die from causes related to viral hepatitis every day. In September 2016, Member States will discuss the first action plan for the health sector’s response to viral hepatitis in the WHO European Region, which will set an ambitious goal of elimination of viral hepatitis as a public health threat in the Region by 2030. Learn more here: http://www.euro.who.int/en/health-topics/communicable-diseases/hepatitis/world-hepatitis-day/world-hepatitis-day-2016-speaking-out-on-hepatitis,-the-silent-killer World Hepatitis Day 2016. Global Campaign: http://www.who.int/campaigns/hepatitis-day/2016/en/ World Hepatitis Alliance campaign: http://worldhepatitisday.org/
  18. Thirty European Union member states reported their data on influenza to the European Centre for disease prevention and control in order to provide an update on seasonal influenza immunization policies and obtain vaccination coverage rates in European Union (EU) and European Economic Area (EEA) Member States for the 2013–14 and 2014–15 influenza seasons. Read the report here.
  19. Several studies have investigated the impact of pictures compared to written or verbal information on comprehension, retention and decision-making. Here are a few studies that may be of interest to anyone tasked with communicating information about immunization. The impact of the format of graphical presentation on health-related knowledge and treatment choices Patient Education and Counseling, Volume 73, Issue 3, December 2008, Pages 448–455 Sarah T. Hawley, ,Brian Zikmund-Fisher, Peter Ubel, Aleksandra Jancovic, Todd Lucas, Angela Fagerlin Pictogram Evaluation and Authoring Collaboration Environment NCBI, Available online 23 June 2012 Hyeoneui Kim, RN, MPH, PhD, Dorothy Tamayo, Michael Muhkin Jaemin Kim, PhD, Julius Lam, Lucila Ohno-Machado, MD, PhD, and Eliah Aronoff-Spencer, MD, PhD Role of Pictograms in Educating Diabetic Patients about Medication use and Life Style Modifications Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, Vol 8, Issue 3, Jul-Sep, 2015 Veintramuthu Sankar , Ramya Krishna, Vuyyuru Krishna Reddy, Narmadha Muthu Mahendiran, Sameer Hussain and Rama Parthasarathy The use of pictograms in the health care: A literature review Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Volume 10, Issue 5, September–October 2014, Pages 704–719 Izadora M.C. Barros, M.Sc., Ph.D. Student., Thaciana S. Alcântara, M.Sc. Student., Alessandra R. Mesquita, M.Sc., Ph.D. Student., Anne Caroline O. Santos, M.Sc., Felipe P. Paixão, Pharmacy Student., Divaldo P. Lyra Jr., Ph.D
  20. Vaccines and Autism

    Healthcare Management Degree Guide http://www.healthcare-management-degree.net/autism-vaccines/
  21. Vaccines Infographic

    Modern Health http://www.modernpediatrics.com/tag/infographic/
  22. Measles Moves Fast

    Measles and Rubella Initiative http://www.cdc.gov/globalhealth/measles/
  23. Flash-mob in City Center of Chisinau On April 28, 2016, with occasion of «European Week of Immunizations", into the Public Garden "Stefan cel Mare" in Chisinau, has continued the initiative group of students, residents of the University of Medicine and Pharmacy "N. Testemitanu "and young specialists of the National Center for Public Health, informing about the importance and successes of immunization among the population by means of this logotype " Prevent. Protect. Vaccinate ". The aim was to attract attention of target groups on immunization awareness process and eliminate doubts regarding to vaccination. Most parents, future parents, adults said that the event is welcome because some people are against vaccination and it represents a major threat not only for those who are not vaccinated but also for those vaccinated. The involvement of two actors Republican Puppet Theater "LICURICI" being dressed as measles vaccine and measles virus that was aimed to create a real image for child about the power of vaccine on the virus. The campaign was also organized with the support of the WHO Regional Office for Europe, NCPH, and UNICEF. Prevent. Protect. Immunize.
  24. I’m Sabrina Bacci, an expert in vaccine preventable disease surveillance at the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC). The postings on this site are my own and don't necessarily represent ECDC positions or opinions. We are all familiar with going to the doctor or to a vaccination clinic and being immunised against a disease. This is the final step of a long process which involves vaccine development (a process that lasts in the range of 10 years before a vaccine is placed on the market and includes many studies), disease monitoring (also called routine surveillance), monitoring of the vaccination programme itself, and monitoring vaccine safety. This blog briefly explains the monitoring of vaccination programmes. Monitoring vaccination programmes is done through specific studies which might involve different aspects: collecting information on vaccine effectiveness (how the vaccine is performing in individuals) and estimating the impact of a vaccination programme in society. Vaccine effectiveness studies measure how well a vaccine works at the individual level when introduced into society. In addition, this type of study may bring evidence that less/more doses are needed to confer protection in the long term and that a vaccine protects individuals from additional diseases than those it was initially created for. The impact of a vaccination programme can be studied by comparing different populations with different programmes. For the same vaccine it is possible that different countries implement different strategies, for example targeting different age groups (adults over age 55 or adults over age 65), or different risk groups. Studies of vaccine effectiveness and impact are complex and need to be designed with appropriate methodologies and high quality data. One example of a study aimed at monitoring both the effectiveness and impact of vaccination is Pertinent (Pertussis in Infants European Network), a study funded by ECDC in which 9 different countries and approximately 50 hospitals participate. This type of study, by having specific hospitals and dedicated people committed, will contribute to fine tune vaccination programmes with in depth information that is not often available by routine surveillance. When hospitals and local healthcare workers are committed to a specific study, we have good confidence that high quality information will be collected in addition to the “routine” daily information reported by all physicians in the country. However both aspects are important and complementary. Studies on monitoring vaccination programmes are an essential aspect of the long journey of vaccines and they complement information derived from other sources. They have contributed and continue to contribute to ensuring the effective and appropriate use of vaccines.
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