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Sarah Earnshaw

Catalogue of interventions addressing vaccine hesitancy

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The ECDC catalogue of interventions to address vaccine hesitancy offers a collection of 40 interventions developed in various countries around the world in order to measure and address vaccine hesitancy. It showcases examples of practices that can serve as a bank of ideas and be adapted according to national and local needs and strategies.
The catalogue is divided into two parts. First, it lists relevant interventions that focus on developing tools to measure the scope and scale of vaccine hesitancy in various populations. These diagnostic tools can then be used by public health professionals to inform the development of targeted interventions to address vaccine hesitancy. Second, it focuses on interventions designed to address or respond to vaccine hesitancy. This part is subdivided into three categories: individual-level interventions focusing on parents; individual-level interventions focusing on improving healthcare workers’ confidence and communication skills to respond to hesitant patients; and interventions focusing on responding to hesitancy at a community level.

Examples of interventions measuring the scope and scale of hesitancy 

  • Global vaccine confidence index

The aim of the Global Vaccine Confidence Index is to measure vaccine hesitancy and provide information about hesitant populations and the nature of their concerns. Information is gathered through a survey administered globally through a joint collaboration between Gallup International and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine Vaccine Confidence Project. It gives a comparable indication about populations’ trust in vaccines and what their concerns are. 

  • Questionnaire measuring vaccine hesitancy among general practitioners

The aim of the questionnaire is to measure, and to some extent quantify, vaccine hesitancy among general practitioners (GPs). The questionnaire assesses perceptions about vaccines (risk, utility), recommended behaviours towards patients, personal vaccination behaviours, and confidence in various sources of information about the benefits and risks of vaccines. It was administered by telephone interviews.

Examples of interventions addressing or responding to vaccine hesitancy

  • Web-based MMR decision aid

The aim of the web based decision aid is to empower parents to make informed decisions about vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella. It consists of a step-by-step guide including frequently asked questions and answers, numerical and graphic data comparing the potential risks of the MMR vaccine with the potential risks of contracting disease and clarifies options available. It also includes a clarifying values exercise where the user reviews the importance they place on advantages and disadvantages of vaccination.

  • Framework for communicating with vaccine hesitant parents

This communication framework aims to improve communication between clinicians and vaccine hesitant parents. It helps clinicians to tailor their conversations with patients and avoid confrontational arguments. It uses the principles of motivational interviewing, thereby guiding patients rather than directing them and focusing on developing an empathic relationship. This respectful, non-judgemental approach aims to build trust between vaccine-providers and their patients. The intervention has two different communication approaches for different types of vaccine hesitant parents.


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